Thursday, 23 August 2012

Einstein's Dream

Hypothesis

What we already know is that the created system, Bose Einstein Condensate system (BECs) contains (6) Rugosa corals representing Higgs boson and acting as monopoles with (2) north poles, (2) south poles and (2) neutrals.


Pions strangeness (Pion decay) is one of the less observed phenomenon in particle physics. This system; Bose Einstein Condensate system (BECs)  is the perfect tool to bring a good opportunity to study this phenomenon. Up to date the product known from this decay is electrons, positrons and electron neutrinos.

This product explains the very high density on the surface of the system. Once the surface is exposed to a source of light, the analyzed interference patterns will explain the electron wave duality, Dalitz pair and pion decay.

Also introducing the double Dalitz Pi neutral (π0) decay mode; to produce the eta (η) and the eta prime meson (η′) as explained in figure (4) and (5).
The Dalitz electron has a vertical half spin, and the positron doesn’t decay. Obviously in figure (4) the decay is shown just for the electron, where one photon (Y) is emitted. The up quark and the anti up quark decay to produce a down quark and an anti down quark.

Two strange quarks and anti strange quarks are added to the existing up and down quarks plus their anti particles; the anti up and anti down.

In figure (5) the eta prime meson is the result of a half horizontal spin of eta meson where we can see a minus of a strange quark and an anti strange quark.

In (F6) the CP violation occurrence within the eta prime meson is apparent at the anti up quark level and at the down quark level this violation could be explained by the charge-transfer complex (CT complex).

(F6) as well explains the Letter Confinement by naming a new quark combined by two quarks, in this case the generation of a charm quark from an up quark and an anti up quark, also a bottom quark from a down quark and an anti down quark.

By following the process of defragmentation, I would like to include (F7) to make a good cleavage between two kinds of mesons; the (D) mesons and the (B) mesons. The wave-particle duality explained by the electron diffraction has a primordial role to the genesis of these mesons, also an explanation to (G) parity.

The Rugosa corals are the perfect still living creatures which allow us to create a “Privileged Local Inertial Frame” (photograph 1), this frame has the fiabilty to make experiments on “Lorentz Invariance” and the “Special Theory of Relativity”. Once we look at figure (8) we automatically understand that the CPT symmetry is perfect.

The right answer to the Electroweak Theory, Gauge Invariance, and the sure Eigenvalues phases in Space-time is explained in (F9) and (F10) and all this is emphasized by (Photograph 2) as we can see the intensity of light made by the electron reflection. 

(F11) Space-time transformation makes the charm quark and the bottom quark observable after their confinement. At this stage, their sequences could be seen just at (360) degrees.


In (F12) the electron is diffracted by a huge source of light to form an integrated circuit by definition, this transformation is a good explanation to understand the Transformation Theory, again we see that letter confinement of the strange quark and the anti strange quark is present. 

(F13) is the last stone to finish the building of the electron, this figure takes us back to the first step of the electron resulted from the Dalitz neutral Pion decay (π0). All the steps of decay and confinement and parities are a good geometrical proof to confirm the Debroglie theory of wave nature of the electron and all matter. Also this is a good proof indicating the incarnation of matter in a new form, such as Higgs boson appearing in the Rugosa corals.

To make further progress an analysis of alpha particles is imminent to the subject; by exposing (F14) we understand that the hypothesized (helium-electron-neutrino) in the earlier post of “Higgs boson discovered (F10d)” produces it’s antiparticle the (helium-electron-antineutrino).

In figure (15) we can see that the (11) alpha particles; which are from helium 1 to helium 11, and the quarks and the anti quarks which their number is (10) to make a total of (21). At this stage a decay occurs for all particles with a half spin right to make the total of all particles (42).

Figure (16) explains alpha particles, quarks, and anti quarks decay; four generations of each particle are generated to make the total to (100) particles.

In figure (17) we can see that Charge, Parity and Time of alpha particles, quarks, anti quarks, Hve and Anti Hve representing a state of inflation and expansion. This is the beginning of the formation of the universe.


Figure (18) is showing how a CP violation occurs to produce D mesons; the charm quark invades the surface occupied by the up quark, down quark and the strange quark. Also that gives an explanation to the starting point of Gauge Transformations. 
 
Figure (19) represents D meson decay which is explained by the Eddington approximation where the decay is in the perpendicular direction. Also the charm quark keeps it's singularity, and has the ability to create a strange quark. The bottom quark and the anti bottom quark appear for the first time on the frame.

Finally my opinion is that geometry and physics are one coin with two faces; it is always possible to make a discovery in physics by using geometry and vice versa, and the work of “Michael Atiyah” is a perfect example. 



BECs Phase (5). Photograph (1)  
(Privileged Local lnertial Frame). 

BECs Phase (5). Electron Reflection (Photograph 2)


Definitions

1- In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of one involved atomic orbital overlap two lobes of the other involved atomic orbital. These orbitals share a nodal plane which passes through both of the involved nuclei.

2- In particle physics, a pion (short for pi meson, denoted with π) is any of three subatomic particles: π0, π+, and π−. Pions are the lightest mesons and they play an important role in explaining the low-energy properties of the strong nuclear force.

2- 1 Pion decays:
The origine of the electron density created on the surface of BECs comes from the pion decay which are as follow

2-1-1 The most common decay mode of a pion, with probability 0.000123, is also a leptonic decay into an electron and the corresponding electron antineutrino. This mode was discovered at CERN in 1958.
π+→e+ + ve
π−→e-+  νe


2-1-2 The Dalitz decay into a photon and an electron–positron pair:

π0 → γ + e- + e+




2-1-3 Also observed, for charged pions only, is the very rare "pion beta decay" (with probability of about 10−8) into a neutral pion plus an electron and electron anti neutrino (or for positive pions, a neutral pion, positron, and electron neutrino).

π+→ π0 + e- +  νe
π− → π0 + e+ + ve


3- In particle physics, strangeness S is a property of particles, expressed as a quantum number, for describing decay of particles in strong and electromagnetic reactions, which occur in a short period of time.

4- The eta (η) and eta prime meson (η′) are mesonss made of a mixture of up, down and strange quarks and their antiquarks. The charmed eta meson (ηc) and bottom eta meson (ηb) are forms of quarkonium; they have the same spin and parity as the light eta but are made of charm quarks and bottom quarks respectively. The top quark is too heavy to form a similar meson (top eta meson, symbol (ηt)), due to its very fast decay.

Eta meson (η)

 Dalitz electron decays to produce one eta meson and one photon 

Eta prime meson (η′) 
 



 Dalitz electron decays to produce one prime eta meson 

5- In physics, C-symmetry means the symmetry of physical laws under a charge-conjugation transformation. Electromagnetism, gravity and the strong interaction all obey C-symmetry, but weak interactions violate C-symmetry.


6- CP violation 
In particle physics, CP violation is a violation of the postulated CP-symmetry: the combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and P-symmetry (parity symmetry). CP-symmetry states that the laws of physics should be the same if a particle were interchanged with its antiparticle (C symmetry), and then left and right were swapped (P symmetry)

CP violation within the prime eta meson and and letter confinement of quarks


7- Electron diffraction: refers to the wave nature of electrons. However, from a technical or practical point of view, it may be regarded as a technique used to study matter by firing electrons at a sample and observing the resulting interference pattern. This phenomenon is commonly known as the wave-particle duality, which states that the behavior of a particle of matter (in this case the incident electron) can be described by a wave.


The genesis of (D) and (B) mesons

8- CPT symmetry: is a fundamental symmetry of physical laws under transformations that involve the simultaneous inversion of charge, parity, and time.



CPT symmetry

9- The electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction. The theory models them as two different aspects of the same force. they would merge into a single electroweak force.
First, it should exhibit an underlying mathematical symmetry, called gauge invariance, such that the effects of the force are the same at different points in space and time. Second, the theory should be renormalizable; i.e., it should not contain nonphysical infinite quantities.


10- Eigenvalues
All parity transformations have some eigenvalues which are phases other than (±1). In quantum mechanics, spacetime transformations act on quantum states. 






11- An integrated circuit: or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as IC, chip, or microchip) is an electronic circuit manufactured by lithography, or the patterned diffusion of trace elements into the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material. Additional materials are deposited and patterned to form interconnections between semiconductor devices.


12- In quantum mechanics, the concept of matter waves or de Broglie waves reflects the wave–particle duality of matter. The theory was proposed by Louis de Broglie in 1924 in his PhD thesis. The de Broglie relations show that the wavelength is inversely proportional to the momentum of a particle and is also called de Broglie wavelength. Also the frequency of matter waves, as deduced by de Broglie, is directly proportional to the particle's total energy, i.e. the sum of particle's Kinetic energy and rest energy.




13- Alpha particles: (named after and denoted by the first letter in the Greek alphabet, α) consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus, which is classically produced in the process of alpha decay, but may be produced also in other ways and given the same name. The symbol for the alpha particle is α or α2+, it can be written as He2+, 42He2+ or 42He (as it is possible that the ion gains electrons from the environment; also, electrons are not important in nuclear chemistry).







14- Statistical mechanics of vortex lines
As first discussed by Onsager and Feynman, If the temperature is raised in a superfluid or a superconductor, the vortex loops undergo a second-order phase transition. This happens when the configurational entropy overcomes the Boltzmann factor which suppresses the thermal or heat generation of vortex lines. The lines form a condensate. Since the center of the lines, the vortex cores, are normal liquid or normal conductors, respectively, the condensation transforms the superfluid or superconductor into the normal state. The ensembles of vortex lines and their phase transitions can be described efficiently by a gauge theory.






15 - Intencity (heat transfer)

Spectral intencity. Specific (radiative) intencity. Radiative transfere. The Eddington approximation.The Eddington approximation is a special case of the two stream approximation. It can be used to obtain the spectral radiance in a "plane-parallel" medium (one in which properties only vary in the perpendicular direction) with isotropic frequency-independent scattering. It assumes that the intensity is a linear function.
NOTE:
- For further photographs please visit my photos stream at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/treasure4/
Definition from Wikipedia
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